Noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing with large pigs (approximately 200
pounds) using a lightweight cymbal transducer array and biosensors.
Authors Park EJ, Werner J, Beebe J, Chan S, Smith NB
Submitted By Nadine Smith on 3/31/2010
Status Published
Journal Journal of diabetes science and technology[electronic resource]
Year 2009
Date Published 3/1/2010
Volume : Pages 3 : 517 - 523
PubMed Reference 20144290
Abstract BACKGROUND: To prevent complications in diabetes, the proper management of blood
glucose levels is essential. Since conventional glucose meters require pricking
fingers or other areas of the skin, a noninvasive method for monitoring blood
glucose levels is desired. Using a lightweight cymbal transducer array, this
study was conducted to noninvasively determine the glucose levels of pigs having
a similar size to humans. METHOD: In vivo experiments using eight pigs
(approximately 200 pounds) were performed in five groups. A cymbal array with
four biosensors was attached to the axillary area of the pig. The array was
operated at 20 kHz at special peak-temporal peak intensity (I(sptp)) equal to 50
or 100 mW/cm(2) for 5, 10, or 20 minutes. After the ultrasound exposure, glucose
concentrations of the interstitial fluid were determined using biosensors. For
comparison, glucose levels of blood samples collected from the ear vein were
measured by a commercial glucose meter. RESULT: In comparison, glucose levels
determined by a cymbal array and biosensor system were close to those measured
by a glucose meter. After a 20-minute ultrasound exposure at I(sptp) = 100
mW/cm(2), the average glucose level determined by the ultrasound system was 175
+/- 7 mg/dl, which is close to 166 +/- 5 mg/dl measured by the glucose meter.
CONCLUSION: Results indicate the feasibility of using a cymbal array for
noninvasive glucose sensing on pigs having a similar size to humans. Further
studies on the ultrasound conditions, such as frequency, intensity, and exposure
time, will be continued for effective glucose sensing.

Investigators with authorship
Nadine SmithPennsylvania State University-Penn State Main Campus