Adipose Tissue Distribution and Presence of Coronary Artery Calcification by Gender and Diabetes Status.
Hagopian, Colleen   (University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center)
Mentor: Snell-Bergeon, Janet
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death for people with both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), though the prevalence of obesity differs between these two groups. The risk for CAD increases to a greater extent in women with diabetes than in men with diabetes, when compared to people without diabetes (non-DM). Differences in the location and volume of adipose tissue (AT) may contribute to the relative risk of CAD. Subclinical CAD can be detected with Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Scoring, which quantifies calcified plaques in the coronary arteries and predicts clinical CAD. To study the relationships of subcutaneous AT (SAT), visceral AT (VAT), and pericardial AT (PAT) volume with CAC in men and women, participants were grouped by diabetes status. Cardiac scans using computed tomography (CT) were completed to quantify PAT and CAC. Abdominal CT scans at the level of lumbar vertebrae four and five were completed to quantify SAT and VAT. After adjusting for age and BMI, SAT was lower in T2D when compared to non-DM adults in both males and females, but only varied significantly in females (p=0.0177). There were no significant differences observed in VAT between groups when adjusted for age and BMI. The VAT/SAT ratio was significantly lower in T1D men when compared to non-DM (p=0.0001) and T2D (p=0.0110) men. There was no significant difference in VAT/SAT ratio seen in women. PAT volume was higher in T2D than in both non-DM (f: p=0.0167, m: p=0.0001) and T1D (f: p=0.0089, m: p=0.0001) individuals for both males and females when adjusted for age and BMI. People with T2D were more obese than both T1D and non-DM people, but when adjusted for overall adiposity there remained significant differences in AT distribution. People with T2D had less SAT but more PAT at a given BMI, which may have implications for at for least some of their increased CAD risk. People with T1D had much higher CAC scores than non-DM people, despite similar BMI and lower VAT/SAT ratio in men with T1D compared to non-DM and T2D men. Risk for CAC remained significantly higher among people with both T1D and T2D when adjusted for PAT volume, suggesting that factors beyond AT may influence CAD risk in this population.